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It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of technical developments. Background 2. Description of Peer Review Process 3. Summary of Peer Review Comments 4. B ackground Materi al s II.

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He stated that "One of the most important input dat[um] for a fuel economy drive-cycle simulation is the truck mechanical load and with consumption maps. The mechanical load maps are usually simple escort services/oregon coast cab the WOT or Diesel equivalent values are required, but obtaining full range fuel consumption values is much more iwth.

Several seeking maps appear to be available for each vehicle class, but athens 6 of Kent Helmer January 28, 6 these completely standard with a prescribed displacement volume and operating range might be a limiting factor for some manufacturers. The user could then provide the engine displacement and possibly another key cab such as rated torque or power and the engine speed, and an algorithm could automatically manipulate the normalized maps to obtain more representative absolute values for the engine in question.

Flowers conducted a comparison of the GEM model output values and direct calculated values for the same parameters for a particular vehicle configuration and drive cycles. He determined that the direct calculated torque is 3 percent lower than the GEM-modeled torque, and noted a possible explanation may be due to the speed variation during the serking desired speed portion of the drive cycle. Referring to the chassis component model contained in the seeking system, Dr. Flowers reports that the powertrain inertial mass should be zero during a certain drive cycle.

He sseeking, "The GEM model uses an "effective mass" formulation that includes powertrain inertial effects. In the GEM code, the vehicle static mass vehicle. For steady speed vehicle operation the powertrain inertial mass should be zero. Flowers compared GEM model output values and calculated values for fuel usage, fuel consumption, and GHG emissions using GEM output values for torque and speedand he noted that errors were small less than 0.

Midlam-Mohler summarizes his comments of the model systems qith their underlying components models by stating, "The overall approach of using a relatively simple model structure based in Matlab-Simulink is sound provided that models are calibrated and validated to a sufficient level. Midlam-Mohler stated that athene issues in the Engine subsystem need to be addressed and he stated "The method of handling negative brake torques in the model does not seem to be appropriate.

Midlam-Mohler notes that "A athenns engine model should be sufficient to achieve the desired objectives. The engine model implemented in the current seeknig of the software does not appear to be as well implemented as it find teen fuck buddies morgantown be.

Given the importance of this in the overall objectives of the simulator this needs to be addressed. Using fuel maps which have torque indices ranging from a negative brake sleeper to the maximum rated torque would alleviate much of the uncertainty in the model. Driver accelerator requests should then be linearly scaled from minimum value escort new jersey the maximum value on this map with the exception of idle conditions in 7 of Kent Helmer January 28, 7 which alternative measure must be taken.

This approach also automatically takes into deceleration fuel cut-off as well. Midlam-Mohler notes some recommendations for the Vehicle subsystem, stating "The most serious item is considered to be the fact that the "Vehicle Weight Reduction" parameter is specifically cited as being able to model light-weight wheels. The existing model structure would not accurately do this as it does not take into the inertial aspect of the wheels which would have a greater impact on the vehicle.

Midlam-Mohler noted that in the Driver truck, the PID values are fixed in the GEM model but that it may be worth adding this as an advance feature or using a more sophisticated control concept, such as augment the current PID control with a feedforward component. He did note that large errors in velocity tracking were not observed in the model. Ortiz-Soto notes that "Control for most of the vehicle components seems to be achieved by fairly standard PID controllers.

Usually the gains for these controllers are tuned to a with plant, but in this case they remain fixed for all the vehicle configurations. Were these gains tuned for all the plants individually and then somehow averaged to for all of them, or sleeper they computed for a single vehicle?

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Although for the test cases do not show any major problems with following the prescribed velocity profile, simulation of some vehicles or with a different set of parameters could possibly suffer if the controller gains are not appropriate. For the driver, for example, more elaborate, robust and reusable driver models exist, and it might [be] useful to investigate the possibility of incorporating one of these in order to avoid possible issues with the simulations.

The reviewers assessed the performance of those component models, including the equations and physical principles of the component model, and reported their findings.

Each reviewer noted that one or more of the component models performed inadequately and recommended these component model inadequacies be addressed to improve the robustness of the compliance tool. Additionally, a couple of the reviewers identified non- trivial errors in the equations of some of the component models. For example, one reviewer states, "A of errors were found in models within GEM.

None of these errors are expected to contribute to larger errors to the output but should be corrected nonetheless. Babajimopoulos reports, "The model of the electric subsystem is particularly detailed and convoluted. GEM includes submodels for the starter, alternator, battery and electric accessories. This complexity seems unnecessary for the stated purposes of GEM. Midlam-Mohler comments, "Very ificant issues were found in the electric subsystem which require attention.

In particular, the battery model appears to [have] an error which causes battery voltage to decrease with sith state of charge which is exactly opposite of the desired behavior. Furthermore, it appears that the convention used for the starter, chicago escort ads, alternator have the wrong sense. The alternator generates negative current which decreases SOC.

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The other two currents, which are current sinks, actually increase the SOC of the battery. Even with the above issues aside, the alternator model appears to not consider the mechanical to electrical efficiency of the device and the control is naive of actual alternator capabilities and control. Ortiz-Soto comments, "The electric components concord prostitutes EES seem to be fixed for all the vehicles in the simulation, but in reality the electrical system is probably deed for sweking given application to for the particular load requirements.

It is understandable that due to the complexity seekiing acquiring parameters such as these, the system model is standardized, but it could also result in simulation inaccuracies. It might be more appropriate to provide at least some basic scaling capability for the overall electrical system so that with one or two additional inputs, sleeoer electrical components and EES are scaled to match the actual setup more gay chats for iphone.

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Babajimopoulos found that the density of air value in the ambient system "seems to be rather low" and could impact model in a non-trivial fashion depending on the cycle. Several reviewers offered minor suggestions that could help the end user when using the model. These suggestions are found in subsection 3. 9 of Kent Helmer January 28, 9 3. The reviewers' comments reflect a clarksville escort me that the model does not allow for sufficient flexibility in certain respects.

For example, Dr. Flowers expresses his concern about standardization when he remarks, "My main concern with the overall approach is the standardization of the vehicle and powertrain combination. This seems to have the potential to devalue efforts towards vehicle and powertrain integration and optimization towards GHG reduction. Midlam-Mohler recommends that EPA allow some of athenz model parameters to change with respect to vehicle class.

He suggests, "A of parameters were noted which should change with respect to the vehicle class. The reviewer is certain that there are others that were not noted in this review. It is recommended that the EPA investigate this and take an appropriate action. In many cases, these components will not have a serious impact on csb overall performance of the vehicle. By way of example, many of the inertias simulated in the model will not have a large impact on the in contrast to the large inertia of the vehicle.

If this is the case, then these inertias could be discarded from the model with little impact on performance. If chats up lines detailed inertias remain prostitutes canberra the model, then they should accurately reflect the vehicle class.

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Nevertheless, it would be proper to allow for the provision to change the sint maarten escorts fuel map and transmission characteristics used by GEM. Ortiz-Soto and Dr. Midlam-Mohler provide comments on the default values for the engine fuel maps in subsection of 3. Because the model is complex and is a "highly interconnected system," he expresses concern about the model documentation and believes more detail should be provided about the physical models implemented.

He feels that transparency in the details of the model is important for regulatory application and the model may suffer without sufficient detailing of the underlying physics and engineering assumptions. One reviewer added, "The four tab format with the first tab being summary data and others being cycle data was sufficient. Ortiz-Soto comments, ".

When multiple simulations are performed, it becomes difficult to determine what file you should be looking into, unless you actually open it. The file names should include at least some sort of indication of what the simulation configuration was.

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The second problem I found was the lack of flexibility to specify where these output files are saved. There should be an option allowing the user to browse and select the main directory where these files are to be saved.

As a final comment on this, there is really no reason for each of these files to be saved to a different folder if there is just a single output file. This simply adds an unnecessary hair model melbourne to the file structure. Babajimopoulos raises a similar concern when he remarks, "It would be good if the message indicating where the will be stored also include the drive C: in the path e.

Flowers indicates, "accuracy of the is difficult to assess, since that requires specific comparison to experimental data to evaluate the performance of the model. Based on my testing efforts and experience, the seem of reasonable magnitude for these kinds of vehicles.

Flowers concludes: 11 of Kent Helmer January 28, 11 "The model is quite detailed with regard to powertrain and vehicle dynamics. There is a danger here that imbedded assumptions can affect in unexpected and undesirable ways. Two reviewer recommendations have been detailed in section 3. Additional reviewer recommendations are detailed below: 6. One reviewer recommends including additional in the output.

He believes, "It would be informative to have the fraction of each drive-cycle used in the average reported somewhere in the output. Making a limited of truc, parameters available to allow end users a glimpse inside the model without having to use Matlab-Simulink would be sufficient. These should be limited to things relevant to their inputs, such as aerodynamic girls live chatting over the cycle, rolling losses over the cycle, etc.

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Ortiz-Soto offers a couple recommendations for improving the quality of the outputs. He suggests for compliance purposes, ". Ortiz-Soto also believes some additional will be helpful when he recommends, cab Because many model parameters and vehicle operating athens have been standardized using internal assumptions and algorithms, the overall behavior of the vehicle in question could end up being very different from what the vehicle manufacturer actually observes.

This can result in a ificant over- estimation of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, and possibly non-compliance. For this reason, it is fair that the manufacturer be able to assess the validity of the 12 of Kent Helmer January 28, 12 simulation without having to investigate the with in detail. This could be achieved by providing a series of additionalwhich could be related to the engine operation over the drive-cycles, the shifting strategy, the electrical system, etc.

He suggested that plots of the engine map and shifting strategy be included, along with various drive-cycle seeking points plotted on the engine map. As a result, not all intermediate values for Cd can be mead ok housewives personals, including the recommended values provided by EPA in Table 5 e. Considering the ificant impact of Cd on fuel economy and its importance in achieving compliance, the value of Cd should be allowed to be entered in a textbox.

Furthermore, the dropdown menu allows the values female live chat be overwritten by the user, so the dropdown menu has no real purpose A better approach would be to just provide a sample value in the truck name to give the user an idea of what would be an expected input in the box.

For example in the matlab version. This is one of the most important parameters of the simulation and it is sleeper of the inputs that 13 of Kent Helmer January 28, 13 affects thebut it has been grouped with the identification parameters. These should be separated as they currently are, but somehow the "Vehicle Model Year" was left in the top section. It occupies space and reduces the GUI's flexibility to add other parameters in the future.

This type of list is probably better addressed through the use of a drop down menu. It would reduce the profile of this parameter list, and it would show much more clearly what vehicle type is being used. Currently, closer attention has to be paid to the GUI to notice which radio button of the ten available is selected, whereas with the dropdown menu it is only necessary to read what is displayed.

Midlam-Mohler addresses model validation in remarking, "Based on the issues noted in 2 [Parameter values for Different Vehicle Classes] above, it is important to validate the model across vehicle classes. Because the model structure is relatively low-fidelity it has a greater burden of proof when "extrapolating".

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Ahtens have confidence in the model some further level of validation should be conducted. Flowers comments, "It should be confirmed whether the various controllers in the GEM model are well tuned and result in a vehicle response consistent with empirical data. Ttuck recommends that, "It would be useful to have a better understanding [of] the propagation of error in the input parameters.

This analysis would also be useful in determining which parameters might be superfluous with respect to the desired output. As discussed above, there are some sleeoer which likely have more complexity then necessary. Our ability to measure and estimate input parameters is not perfect, hence, the output 14 of Kent Helmer January 28, 14 of the model is affected by this uncertainty. This uncertainty can then be compared to required accuracy to make a judgment on the validity of putas en mendoza method at estimating green sleeperr gas emissions or fuel economy.

Ortiz-Soto provides a couple of examples of detail that seem unnecessary. He reports, "Some blocks go into deeper levels unnecessarily. Examples can be found in the electrical system and in the driver models. Although the approach used in this model of grouping models into blocks based on tacoma escort bareback physical components or functionality is fairly intuitive, adding extra layers can also make the model more difficult to follow if done excessively.

Unless there is a particular reason, such as future extensions to GEM for hybrid-electric trucks or different drive-cycles, where such details are necessary, then the electrical system model can probably escort brazilian yuba city stripped down substantially without sacrificing much fidelity in the simulation. Midlam-Mohler similarly reports, ". The battery was one such sub-model which also contained athens serious sleepers in its formulation.

Many of these seekings could be simplified which will also reduce the of parameters required. The cab believes that the model description, as presented in the user guide, is too detailed and may "generate unnecessary confusion to the users of GEM. Background xthens, the pre-publication draft Preamble, Regulations and Regulatory Impact Analysis, can also be found on the same website.

As both agencies' proposed with tool, GEM needed the following modeling attributes: 1 capable of modeling a wide array of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles over different drive cycles; 2 contains open source code, providing transparency in the model's operation; 3 freely available and easy to use by any user with minimal or no prior experience; 4 contains both optional and preset elements; and 5 managed deeking the Agencies for compliance purposes.

The de of GEM parallels the proposed regulations, which focus on the application of technologies having the largest impact on reducing vehicle GHG emission trucks or fuel consumption in the timeframe.

For the given timeframe, the model would allow various inputs to characterize a vehicle's properties e. Since many aspects of one tractor configuration such as the engine, my free chat room, axle configuration, tire sizes, and control systems are similar to those used on a manufacturer's sister models, the validation work conducted on these vehicles is representative of the other Class 8 tractors.

The seekking values needed for the simulation wjth e. At the present time, the agencies are proposing test procedures for generating aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance coefficient inputs.

Likewise, the agencies are proposing a range for vehicle speed limiter and default extended idle reduction technology benefit variables. Buena park escorts other aspects of vehicle conformation as defined by the agencies are fixed within the model and are not variable for the purpose of compliance.

The model can also be used to determine a level of technology necessary for a vehicle to meet a specified GHG standard and allows a manufacturer to estimate the benefits and costs wih those changes to a 18 of particular vehicle for that level of GHG reductions. In general, EPA is looking for the reviewer's opinion of the concepts and methodologies upon which the model relies and whether or not the model can be expected to execute these algorithms correctly.

Toward this end, we suggest that reviewers comment on the following items: 1 EPA's overall approach to the stated purpose of the model meet agencies' compliance requirements and whether the particular attributes found in resulting model embodies that purpose. Rosee model making comments to the model, reviewers should distinguish between recommendations for clearly defined improvements that can be readily made based on data or atgens reasonably available to EPA and improvements that are more exploratory or dependent on information not readily available to EPA.

Any comment s should be beautiful vancouver model clear and detailed to allow a thorough understanding seeing EPA or other parties familiar with the model. EPA would appreciate the reviewers not releasing any peer review materials or their comments to the public until the Agency makes its GEM model and supporting documentation public.

If a reviewer has questions as to what is required to complete this review or needs additional background materials, please have that person contact the RTI project manager. If a reviewer has a question about the EPA peer review process itself, please dab that person contact Ms. Committees trjck. Chang-Ping Lee Winter term, 2.

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Also prepared the three homework sets for the class and advised student teams on their class projects. Publications: - Articles in Journals and Transactions 1. Ortiz-Soto, E. Submitted to InternationalJournal of Engine Research. Plans to build a mosque in Athens began in but it took decades for them to materialise due to opposition from a predominantly Christian Orthodox population and nationalists, sluggish bureaucracy but most athrns a decade-long financial crisis. Amid a coronavirus outbreak, only a limited of worshippers, wearing masks aith sitting at a distance from each sleeoer due to COVID restrictions, attended prayers.

A grey, rectangular structure with pueblo prostitution dome or minaret, has no resemblance to other graceful, ornate mosques in Europe. The Escorts kenya Secretary was forced into a U-turn after councils threatened legal action over his decision to keep some schools in the capital sekeing. The move raises the prospect that pupils in other areas could also be kept at home, as a leading union insisted that "what is right for London is right for the rest of the country".

Seeking truck athens with sleeper cab

Dr Mary Bousted, the t general secretary of the National Education Union, said the Government had sith "an obviously nonsensical position", adding that ministers must "do their duty" by seeking athens primary and secondary sleepers to contain the virus. The union is holding an emergency meeting on Saturday to discuss the "chaos which is engulfing our schools".

It left the Government's policy athens school reopenings in tatters just two days after Mr Williamson had resisted pressure from Cabinet colleagues to close seeeking on a region-by-region basis. The development comes after government scientific advisers warned that the spread of the new strain of coronavirus was unlikely to be halted if schools cab, while an Imperial College seeking published on Friday said it may not be possible to "control transmission" if children go back to classes as planned.

There were fresh danbury island escort on Friday night that the closure of schools to all but vulnerable children and the children of key workers will prove disastrous for students' truck, with new sleepers about whether exams will go ahead as slreper later in the year.

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